Granulomatous inflammation caused by presence of protozoan parasite.
Protozoan infection transmitted by Phlebotomus species sandfly in South America and other tropical regions.
Mucocutaneous manifestations as above. Hepatosplenomegaly in visceral disease.
May be cutaneous, mucocutaneous or visceral forms.
Cutaneous: Granulomatous lesion with raised border, ulceration and crusting.
Mucocutaneous: Tissue destruction of oropharynx and nose.
Visceral: Fever, weight loss.
FBC (pancytopenia), PCR (hypergammaglobulinaemia), culture of lymph from cutaneous lesion, histology, bone marrow biopsy.
Sodium stibogluconate IV, liposomal amphotericin B- especially in HIV infectio
Visceral leishmaniasis may be fatal. Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis can also be fatal due to respiratory compromise and secondary bacterial infection of the airways. Cutaneous leishmaniasis usually recovers well.
Secondary bacterial infections, TB common.